Sponsored Post: Ritalia Funding

As you may already know, we have been exhibitors at Wispa shows for almost 9 years. We are a technology financing source for the industry and work with many well known vendors such as Streakwave, ISP Supplies, Winncom, WavOnline, CTI, among others. We have implemented some new financing programs for you in order to meet the current market needs, please see below:

Our capabilities:

•       App Only Financing Program available for any type of IT / Non IT Equipment (including towers), Software, Services and Soft Costs on transactions starting at 8k and up to 500k.

•       CBRS auction fees and cost financing

•       Special financing structures for new spectrum releases

•       Terms 24 – 60 Months.

•       Hardware & Software (Any brand, any vendor, including CPE’s)

•       Licensing renewals, Software only

•       Maintenance only financing, Implementations only. 

•       Approvals on transactions with a high percentage of Professional Services / Challenging Transactions.

•       60 days deferred payment option available.

•       Pre-approvals in less than 48hrs.

•       Find attached our WISPA Q3 rate sheet for A credit and its requirements.

Please let us know if there is anything we can help you at all.

Thanks, we are looking forward to working with you.

Ivan Crowe / Greg Urbaez

(818)-921-3624 — (818) 921-3630

icrowe@rtflease.com / greg@rtflease.com

www.ritaliafunding.com

Internet Routing Registry Resources by j2sw

What is a routing registry?
From Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Routing_Registry
The Internet routing registry works by providing an interlinked hierarchy of objects designed to facilitate the organization of IP routing between organizations, and also to provide data in an appropriate format for automatic programming of routers. Network engineers from participating organizations are authorized to modify the Routing Policy Specification Language (RPSL) objects, in the registry, for their own networks. Then, any network engineer, or member of the public, is able to query the route registry for particular information of interest.

RFC2622 Routing Policy Specification Language (RPSL)

RFC2650 Using RPSL in Practice

RFC7682 Considerations for Internet Routing Registries (IRRs) and routing Policy Configuration

General IRR Information

http://www.irr.net/
Includes links to various registries, FAQs, and other info

https://www.gin.ntt.net/support-center/policies-procedures/routing-registry/ntt-route-registry-frequently-asked-questions/
NTT route registry FAQ

https://www.seattleix.net/irr-tutorial
Seattle Internet Exchange IRR Tutorial

https://archive.nanog.org/meetings/nanog51/presentations/Sunday/NANOG51.Talk34.NANOG51%20IRR%20Tutorial.pdf
NANOG Routing registry tutorial

General How-Tos

https://fcix.net/whitepaper/2018/07/14/intro-to-irr-rpsl.html
A Quickstart Guide to Documenting Your Prefixes with IRR. This mainly uses the older ARIN e-mail templates.


Arin Specific

https://www.arin.net/resources/manage/irr/userguide/
Arin’s userguide for working with their IRR

https://www.arin.net/resources/manage/irr/irr-online-implementation
Notes on working with ARINs web-based


Other Regional Registries

African Network Coordination Centre (AFRNIC)
https://afrinic.net/internet-routing-registry

Asian-Pacific Network Coordination Centre (APNIC)
https://www.apnic.net/manage-ip/apnic-services/routing-registry/

American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN)
https://www.apnic.net/manage-ip/apnic-services/routing-registry/

Latin American and Caribbean Internet Addresses Registry (LACNIC)
https://www.lacnic.net/innovaportal/file/3512/1/internet-routing-registries.pdf

Reseaux IP Eauropeens Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC)
https://www.ripe.net/manage-ips-and-asns/db/support/managing-route-objects-in-the-irr

Tools

https://github.com/6connect/irrpt
A collection of tools which allow ISPs to easily track, manage, and utilize IPv4 and IPv6 BGP routing information stored in Internet Routing Registry (IRR) databases. Some of these tools include automated IRR data retrieval, update tracking via CVS, e-mail notifications, e-mail based notification for ISPs who still do human processing of routing information, and hooks for automatically deploying prefix-lists on routers.

https://www.radb.net/query
The RADB whois server provides information collected from all the registries that form part of the Internet Routing Registry. 

https://github.com/irrdnet/irrd
Internet Routing Registry daemon version 4 is an IRR database server, processing IRR objects in the RPSL format.

RPKI and misconceptions

After my blog post about Hurricane Electric and RPKi support, I was seeing some comments by folks that warrant some clarification. I put together a short midnight podcast on this.  To summarize
1. route original validation is not the same as having ROA’S with your RIR
2. If you have an ASN you should have a peering DB entry
3.ROAs have nothing to do with your router supporting RPKI

ARIN resources and the Service Provider

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) can be intimidated by all of the facets of working with the American Registry of Internet Numbers (ARIN). I have put together a guide that outlines common things you, as a service provider, need to do.

This guide is not an end-all how-to. Throughout, I am posting videos and links taken from the ARIN site to help. This article is more of an outline of what a service provider needs to do.

The majority of the steps below will be done through ARIN’s online ticketing system.

This is broken down into the following Sections
1. Create a Point of Contact (POC) record
2. Creating an Organization (ORG-ID)
3. Requesting an Autonomous System Number (ASN)
4. Requesting IPv6 space
5. Requesting IPV4 space
6. Source Validation
7. Reverse DNS
8. Routing Registry
9. RPKI
10. Notes and tips

Creating a Point of Contact (POC)
Point of Contact (POC) records are the foundation of your ARIN account. This record is the way you manage your resources. There are different types of POC accounts. https://www.arin.net/resources/guide/account/records/poc/ will tell you everything you need to know about POC records. Creating this record will take mere minutes to make.

Creating an Organization
Once you have a POC record created, you will create an Organization and associate your POC with that ORG-ID. ARIN will attach your resources to your org-id. You will need your federal EIN and your registered business address for this stage. This stage takes a few days to get verified due to ARIN needing to verify you are who you say you are

Requesting an ASN
An Autonomous System Number (ASN) will be the first resource an ISP will request. The ASN allows you to participate in BGP by advertising your IP blocks to peers. The ASN will require to state your routing policy, usually BGP, and at least two peers, you will be establishing BGP. If you don’t have two peers, say your plans in this section.

Once you have met the criteria and you will be asked to fill out an officer attest paper. This statement is a paper stating the information you have submitted is correct and truthful. Once you will out this form and submit it you will then receive an invoice. Once this invoice is paid, you will receive your ASN. This stage can take several days, depending on how much back and forth goes on, asking to clarify information.

Request IPv6 space
I put this as the next stage for a few reasons. The first is you should be moving toward IPv6. At the very least, dual-stack your network. Second, requesting IPV6 space will get you familiar with how ARIN looks at requests.

You are required to state how your network is laid out, what type of network, and how you plan to deploy addresses. Be prepared to give a diagram of your system. You may have to go back and forth a few times, depending on how much detail you provided on your first request.

Just like your ASN, you will be required to sign another office attest, pay the bill, and then the Ip space will be allocated.

Requesting IPV4 space
Requesting IPV4 space is pretty close to requesting V6 space, but ARIN is more strict on their criteria these days due to the shortage of space. If you are looking to transition you can get. /24 of v4 for your v6 transition.

If you choose to request IPV4 space you will be put on a waiting list with others who have also requested space. Details on the waiting list can be found at https://www.arin.net/resources/guide/ipv4/waiting_list/ . ARIN is currently doing quarterly distributions to folks on the waitlist*. I put an asterisk on the previous statement because there are several variables listed at the waitlist site linked above. Some include:

  • Only organizations holding an aggregate of a /20 or less of IPv4 address space may apply and be approved.
  • The maximum-size aggregate that an organization may qualify for at any one time is a /22.

The site says they do quarterly distributions. I believe this gives ARIN time to reclaim IP space and do a cleanup on it. Depending on when you submit you may have to wait several months or longer for an allocation.

As with V6 space and ASN, you have to do another officer attest, pay your invoice, and then it is allocated.

Origin AS
Origin AS validation is a check and balance. From Arin’s https://www.arin.net/resources/registry/originas/
The Origin Autonomous System (AS) field is an optional field collected by ARIN during all IPv4 and IPv6 block transactions (allocation and assignment requests, reallocation and reassignment actions, transfer and experimental requests). This additional field is used by IP address block holders (including legacy address holders) to record a list of the Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs), separated by commas or whitespace, from which the addresses in the address block(s) may originate.

This is simply a field you fill in on your ARIN account. When you get IP space from ARIN this is *usually* automatic.

Reverse DNS
You will need to point your IP blocks to your or hosted DNS servers for the reverse entries. Many different entities pay attention to reverse DNS entries. If you have clients who run mail servers or similar services, you will need a reverse DNS entry. More information at https://www.arin.net/resources/manage/reverse/

Routing Registry
More and more companies, such as Hurricane Electric, are requiring routing registry entries. I did a pretty in-depth article on routing registries. https://blog.j2sw.com/networking/routing-registries-and-you/
ARIN now has a web-based system for setting up route objects. This web mehtod takes some of the learning curve out of adding things into the ARIN registry. Many exchanges, including FD-IX, are moving toward routing registry support.

RPKI
RPKI is another validation method for verifying you are the proper owner of resources, especially IP blocks. https://www.arin.net/resources/manage/rpki/ . Hosted RPKI is the easiest way to get started with RPKI.

I did an article related to RPKI at https://blog.j2sw.com/networking/bgp/hurricane-electric-now-requires-irr-and-rpki/

Notes
Working with ARIN is a pretty straightforward, but sometimes confusing for the newbie. I offer a package for $799 (plus ARIN fees) where I do all the above for you. I have done this so much over the years we have templates and other shortcuts for the various things done.

If you choose to do this on your own some tips.
1. Don’t be afraid to provide more detail than asked.
2. The ARIN helpdesk is actually helpful. If you get stuck call or e-mail them. They have probably answered your question before and are willing to help.
3. Be prepared to provide information about your network, especially with IPv4 requests. ARIN is wanting to know if you are/will be using resources efficiently.

If you get IPv4 space I would recommend adding the new IP block to your advertisements. Allow it to be learned by the various reverse Geolocation folks. After a week check your blocks using the links on this page: http://thebrotherswisp.com/index.php/geo-and-vpn/. This applies to space allocated from ARIN or purchased from a broker.

If you are looking to purchase blocks for a broker, yu need to get pre-approval from ARIN. Learn more at https://www.arin.net/resources/registry/transfers/preapproval/

Hurricane Electric now requires IRR and filters invalid RPKI

If you are a Hurricane Electric customer you may be receiving e-mails like the following:

Dear ASXXX,

Routing Security Report for ASXXX

Hurricane Electric cares about your routing security.  We filter all BGP sessions using prefix filters based on IRR and RPKI.

This report is being sent to help you identify prefixes which may need either their IRR or RPKI information created or updated 
and to also help you identify possibly hijacked routes you may be accepting and reannouncing.  

Routes with RPKI status INVALID_ASN strongly indicate a serious problem.

IPv4 SUMMARY

Routes accepted: 3
Routes rejected: 3
Routes with RPKI status VALID: 0
Routes with RPKI status INVALID: 0

IPv6 SUMMARY

Routes accepted: 1
Routes rejected: 0
Routes with RPKI status VALID: 0
Routes with RPKI status INVALID: 0

We currently do not have a valid as-set name for your network.  Please add an export line to your aut-num ASXXXX 
that references your as-set name.  For example,

export: to AS-ANY announce your-as-set-name

If you do not currently have an as-set, we recommend you create one named ASXXXX:AS-ALL

Your as-set should contain just your ASN and your customers' ASNs and/or as-sets (not your peers or upstream providers).

What does this mean for you as a service provider? If you use Hurricane Electric as transit or peer with them on an exchange you will need to have ROAs for your blocksand have routing registry objects. I did a tutorial based upon Arin which can be found at: https://blog.j2sw.com/networking/routing-registries-and-you/

In short you need to do the following:

  • Create a mntner object (equivalent of a user account) to give you the ability to create IRR objects in your selected IRR database
  • Create an aut-num to represent your autonomous system and describe its contact information (admin and technical) and your routing policy
  • Create an as-set to describe which autonous system numbers your peers should expect to see from you (namely your own and your transit customers)
  • Create a route/route6 object for every prefix originated from your network
  • Update your peeringdb profile to include your IRR peering policy
  • Generate RPKI https://www.arin.net/resources/manage/rpki/roa_request/#creating-a-roa-in-arin-online

Clarification:
Some folks are confusing having valid ROAs with your router supporting RPKI with route origin validation in real-time. These two are separate things. You create ROA records with your RIR, such as ARIN, which has nothing to do with route validation on your router.

Also, HE is filtering any RPKI INVALID routes. Does this mean they are requiring RPKI? You be the judge.



New Speed Test server for Patreons

This content is for Patreon subscribers of the j2 blog. Please consider becoming a Patreon subscriber for as little as $1 a month. This helps to provide higher quality content, more podcasts, and other goodies on this blog.
To view this content, you must be a member of Justin Wilson's Patreon at $4 or more
Already a qualifying Patreon member? Refresh to access this content.

Some WordPress tips

If you are wanting to force non SSL to SSL. Add the following to your site’s .htaccess file

RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{HTTPS} off
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ https://%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [L,R=301]

Set proper file permissions Script from https://www.ryadel.com/en/set-file-system-permissions-wordpress-web-site-centos-7-chmod/

#
# This script configures WordPress file permissions based on recommendations
# from http://codex.wordpress.org/Hardening_WordPress#File_permissions
#
# execute it with the following command:
# bash set-wordpress-permissions.sh /var/www/<site_folder>
#
OWNER=apache # <-- wordpress owner
GROUP=www # <-- wordpress group
ROOT=$1 # <-- wordpress root directory
 
# reset to safe defaults
find ${ROOT} -exec chown ${OWNER}:${GROUP} {} \;
find ${ROOT} -type d -exec chmod 755 {} \;
find ${ROOT} -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \;
 
# allow wordpress to manage wp-config.php (but prevent world access)
chgrp ${GROUP} ${ROOT}/wp-config.php
chmod 660 ${ROOT}/wp-config.php
 
# allow wordpress to manage wp-content
find ${ROOT}/wp-content -exec chgrp ${GROUP} {} \;
find ${ROOT}/wp-content -type d -exec chmod 775 {} \;
find ${ROOT}/wp-content -type f -exec chmod 664 {} \;

CCR1016 BGP route pull down

This morning I had a Mikrotik CCR1016 where I had to change the router ID, which caused all the sessions to reset. The following is a screenshot of the time it took to re-learn all of the peers. Obviously, the smaller prefixes were learned pretty quickly. It took about 10 minutes to learn two full IPv4 route tables and about 5 minutes to learn the IPv6 routing tables.

This is why I always get full routes plus a default from the upstream when it warrants full routes. This way I can have slow convergence time like this and still have traffic flowing.

OpenVPN, rooter project, and Mikrotik

Over the past couple of weeks, I have been fighting with getting an LTE device running The Rooter Project to establish an OpenVPN connection with a Mikrotik router. Apparently, OPENVPN is the only option when it comes to VPNs on The Rooter Project. For the purpose of this article, I am going to refer to the software as “the rooter”. This is just to denote the device running The Rooter Project software. In my case, this is a GL.iNET GL-X750 LTE device.

There are two parts to this setup. The OpenVPN setup on the Mikrotik and the setup on the rooter.

Mikrotik Setup

The Mikrotik setup is pretty straight forward. There are some great tutorials out there for a more in-depth setup. The RouterOS version I used for this setup is 6.47.

Creating Certificates
You will need to create 3 certificates on the Mikrotik.
1. cert_export_ca-certificate.crt
2.cert_export_client-certificate.crt
3.cert_export_client-certificate.key

/certificate
add name=ca-template common-name=example.com days-valid=3650 key-size=2048 key-usage=crl-sign,key-cert-sign
add name=server-template common-name=*.example.com days-valid=3650 key-size=2048 key-usage=digital-signature,key-encipherment,tls-server
add name=client-template common-name=client.example.com days-valid=3650 key-size=2048 key-usage=tls-client

Signing Certificates
Once you have created the above certificates you will need to sign them with the following

/certificate
sign ca-template name=ca-certificate
sign server-template name=server-certificate ca=ca-certificate
sign client-template name=client-certificate ca=ca-certificate

Exporting Certificates
Run the following commands to add a passphrase to your key certificate and export them to files

/certificate
export-certificate ca-certificate export-passphrase=""
export-certificate client-certificate export-passphrase=j2sw123com

This will give you three files: cert_export_ca-certificate.crtcert_export_client-certificate.crt, and cert_export_client-certificate.key. Download these out of “files” from the Mikrotik to the same computer you have access to the rooter on. I like to rename them to ca.crtclient.crt, and client.key so I can keep track of what is what.



Rooter Client Setup

Caveats
I could not find out how to make the operating system read a config file I would edit by hand. Even after a reboot, the config file would not be read. I am not sure if there is a command to read it into the running-config. If someone knows, let me know and that will make this process much easier.

client
dev tun
proto tcp
remote example.com 1194
resolv-retry infinite
nobind
persist-key
persist-tun
ca ca.crt
cert client.crt
key client.key
remote-cert-tls server
cipher AES-128-CBC
auth SHA1
auth-user-pass
redirect-gateway def1
verb 3

In my rooter, the config is in /var/etc. I would cat this occasionally to make sure I did not have any extra options turned on. Since I could not make my edits the file stick, I would make the below changes in the GUI and verify they matched up to my above file.

If your OpenVPN is using a username and password create a file named passowrd.txt and put the username on the first line and the password on the second.

You will need that file along with the three files you generate on the Mikrotik above.

Log in to the router and create you an open VPN instance. In my case, I named it Nexstream because this is who I was working for on this project. You can name it anything you want.

Click on edit and you will be brought to the following screens. Fill them out as shown.

When you get to the bottom this is where you upload your password.text and your cert and key files. If you see anything missing go to the bottom and select the field and click add.

Make sure to hit save and apply before proceeding. Click on “switch to advanced configuration”. Match up your configuration with the following screenshots, which match up with the above config file. You are just basically making the proper checkboxes to match the plain text config I posted above. Again, if anyone knows how to get OpenVPN. on the rooter to read the config in let me know.

Once you have the GUI part done and the certs uploaded to the rooter you will need to deal with the keyphrase via the command line. Simply SSH to the rooter. The below code is a generic code for changing the client.key to not ask for a passphrase anymore.

cd /etc/luci-uploads/
openssl.exe rsa -in client.key -out client.key
Enter pass phrase for client.key: j2sw123com
writing RSA key

Couple of things to note about the process.
1. Your location may vary. You must either be inside the directory with your keys or provide the path to the keys in the OpenSSL command

2.when I uploaded the keys it changed them to cbid.openvpn.FRIENDLYNAME.key.

what my actual code looked like to change the passphrase

cd /etc/luci-uploads/
openssl.exe rsa -in cbid.openvpn.vpnout.key -out cbid.openvpn.vpnout.key
Enter pass phrase for client.key: j2sw123com
writing RSA key

If everything goes well you will be rewarded with the following screen on your OpenVPN main page. If, for some reason, it does not start the system log is actually pretty informative on what is going on.

Briefing June 26th 2020 – API,5g,interconnection

Bots are awesome. They really are. So are APIs; both boost productivity by advancing automation, the exchange of business data and support decision making. If only everything was so perfect…. Unfortunately, 81% of organizations have reported attacks against their APIs, and 75% suffered bot attacks in a 12 month period.
Data centers will become even more pivotal to the digital economy over the next five years, which will see a meteoric rise in the volume of data traffic flowing through network intersections. This existing trend takes on new urgency with the COVID-19 pandemic, which has driven a massive shift to online services.

https://www.businessinsider.com/exclusive-massive-spying-on-users-of-googles-chrome-shows-new-security-weakness-2020-6
A newly discovered spyware effort attacked users through 32 million downloads of extensions to Google’s market-leading Chrome web browser, researchers at Awake Security told Reuters, highlighting the tech industry’s failure to protect browsers as they are used more for email, payroll and other sensitive functions.

The fifth generation of wireless connectivity, commonly referred to as 5G, is revolutionizing our digital lives by enabling unprecedented speed, bandwidth, processing and capacity at an industrial scale. For years now, we’ve been hearing about the almost science fiction-esque advancements 5G will bestow on our society, such as driverless carstelemedicine, factory automation, and smart cities.