WISPs: IPv6 is the answer to some of your issues

Many Wireless Internet Service Providers (WISPs), especially newer startups, struggle with nat issues and having enough public Ip addresses to go around. Invariably, you start running into double nat issues pretty quickly. Then you get the dreaded gamer call:

Many times they don’t know why they are even calling. They just know the magic box is saying this is bad. This is related to how many layers of nat between your edge and them. Many times you are natting at the edge, then you are natting at the customer router. If you have multiple customers behind the same nat at the edge this compounds it even more.

So what is the fix? Give the customer public addresses. But IPv4 is hard to get! I didn’t say IPV4 I said public addresses. IPv6 is a public address. When given the choice between v4 and v6 most modern streaming and gaming platforms will prefer v6. Xbox has supported a protocol called Teredo for a long time. You can learn all about Teredo in this PDF. Basically, it is a tunnel in which the Xbox speaks ipv6 over the tunnel. The ISP does not have to support v6, which does away with the above-mentioned nat issues.

Great! I don’t have to worry about IPv6, Microsoft has it taken care of for me. There are two problems with this statement. Problem number one. There are more companies out there than Microsoft. Sony Playstation Online, Apple gaming, and Steam are just a few. Second, you have overhead of tunnels. In the world of who can pull the joystick quicker, milliseconds count. You don’t want them wasted in tunnel overhead. Plus, v6 is beneficial for other service such as Netflix.

Any other service that runs into port issues behind nat can be solved with Ipv6, This can be voip, cameras, and other type services. This is providing the product or service supports v6 addresses.

So what is an ISP to do?
Awhile back I put together a resource guide for ISPs. You can find it at https://blog.j2sw.com/networking/ipv6/ipv6-planning-and-implementation-resources-for-the-xisp/

PTP Backhaul Complete link kit #1

I have been asked a few times on what I would pick for a PTP link. here is what I would recommend as option #1.  You can use the RF Elements link planner to judge how far you can go. If you want to dive deeper you can use the Cambium LinkPlanner, which is a download. This is an unlicensed 5GH link. if you want some real-world data on this link you can visit https://blog.j2sw.com/xisp/the-addition-of-rf-elements-horns-to-a-ptp550-link/

2x Cambium PTP 550
https://www.ispsupplies.com/Cambium-Networks-C050055H001A
PTP 550 Data Sheet

 

 

 

2x RF Elements Ultrahorn
https://www.ispsupplies.com/RF-Elements-UH-CC-5-24
Ultrahorn Data Sheet

 

 

4x LMR Jumpers
https://www.ispsupplies.com/NM-NM-L4-36

 

 

 

8x Cold Shrink
https://www.ispsupplies.com/COLDSHRINK-12MDN

 

 

There are several other distributors to buy from as well. I choose ISP supplies because they refer business to me and do not have a consulting program that competes with my services.

 

Horvath Communications offers free tower co-lo

In an effort to alleviate the ramifications of COVID-19, Horvath Towers V will be offering free tower co-location to rural broadband service providers for a period of six months. 

“With so many families working and learning from home,” company President Jackie Horvath told Inside Towers, “the demand for wireless internet access has sky-rocketed. As such, we would like to partner with rural internet service providers to allow co-location on our tower assets on a temporary basis.”

Applications will be accepted between now and May 1. All inquiries are to be sent to ehorvath@horvathcommunications.com. As part of this program, the broadband provider will be responsible for the cost of installation and the equipment. The installation team must provide proper insurance before climbing the tower. 

https://www.horvathcommunications.com/ has a map with a site list

AirFiber 4.10 is out

Important notes
  • Please update far end of a link before the near end
  • Please refresh browser cache when logging into a v4.1.0 unit for the first time
  • UNMS cannot upgrade airFiber firmware loaded with pre-beta8 firmware (i.e. -beta7, etc.)
  • If you are upgrading from pre-v4.0 software, your password (after upgrade) will be the first 8 characters of your pre v4.0 password. If you chose to downgrade, please ensure that your password is no longer than 8 characters or you will be locked out of your unit.
Features
  • Added additional modulation rates (3x, 5x, 7x, 9x, 11x)
  • Improved throughput capacity (improved modulation performance)
  • Added support for UNMS
  • Added telemetry reporting (optional)
  • Changes to support Apple SSL certificate location rules
  • Updated default https certificates validity for 18 years
  • Added Paraguay and Swaziland country codes
  • Telnet Server port number now displayed on Services tab when using default number (23)
  • Added alert box when Receive Target Power is enabled
  • Build number now shown in system tab
  • Firmware version now displayed with product ID (i.e AF11 vs AF09)
  • Assorted web changes to colors, initial login screens, updated EULA
Improvements
  • Manual browser refresh not required when upgrading FROM 4.1.0
  • Updated SNMP MIB
Bugfixes
  • Detect and recover from OTA management traffic lockup
  • Detect and recover from user traffic lockup
  • Fixed issue where capacity graph showed 2x capacity when there was no GPS signal at the timing master
  • Fixed issue where GPS process would use 100% of the CPU
  • Fixed issue where RF link would repeatedly reset if Ethernet port was disabled
  • Addressed issue with moving (jittery) labels around signal strength graph
  • Corrected conducted power reading when using Receive Target Power
  • Fixed issue with Carrier Drop Operation where unit would not come back if Block Data After Pulse was enabled
  • Fixed issue where disabling Management VLAN after upgrade from pre v4.0 could corrupt networking configuration
  • Fixed SNMP reporting of frequency (SNMP now reports frequencies in MHz)
  • Fixed Static IP gateway address usage (was ignored if configured with v4.0.x)
  • Fixed GUI issue where deleting link name and pasting in a replacement would not work
Known issues
  • If you are upgrading from pre-v4.0 software, your password (after upgrade) will be the first 8 characters of your pre v4.0 password. If you chose to downgrade, please ensure that your password is no longer than 8 characters or you will be locked out of your unit.

Official Page and Download links here

Compliance Test for LTU and AC gear

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Underground boxes for wireless deployments

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Broadcom announces WIFI6

Broadcom Inc. (NASDAQ: AVGO) today announced the availability of a portfolio of Wi-Fi 6E devices. Wi-Fi 6E is a new standard that builds on the rich feature set of Wi-Fi 6, including OFDMA and other multi-user operations that improve performance in crowded environments, advanced roaming capabilities and increased security. Wi-Fi 6E extends the Wi-Fi 6 standard to support the soon-to-be-operational 6 GHz band. This new band enables up to 1,200 MHz of spectrum for Wi-Fi use, which WLAN access point (AP) manufacturers can leverage to deliver faster speeds, higher capacity and lower latency with no congestion from legacy devices.

https://investors.broadcom.com/news-releases/news-release-details/broadcom-announces-industrys-most-comprehensive-portfolio-wi-fi

Bandwidth and the Wireless ISP

This was an older article I had on my blog a few years ago.  Much of this applies still.

Bandwidth is a big hurdle most aspiring WISPs face. The reason is if high-speed alternatives were already in place, the need for a WISP would not be as great.  Sure there are business models in which the WISP can compete with other high-speed solutions. However, the bread and butter of a WISP is going into underserved areas.

You have several options for bringing a connection into your area to re-distribute to your customers. I will outline these and then go into further detail

-Leased Lines (Fractional, T-1, T3, etc.)
-Fiber Optic
-Wireless backhaul
-Cable
-DSL

Leased Lines are the most easily accessible across the United States. However, as more and more providers build fiber it is taking over as the preferred method of connectivity.  Fiber is more “future proof” than a T-Carrier circuit such as a T1 or T3.   Most phone companies can provide t1 service to almost anywhere. This is because T1 service uses the existing copper already at 99% of locations. If you have a phone line you can almost always get t1 service.  Once you go beyond T1 things get a little more complicated.  However, T1 has the ability to do bonding if the carrier and telco support it.  You essentially buy multiple T1s and combine them into a single “pipe”.  This requires the provider to support bonding as well as some special configuration on your routers.

Some questions you should ask your provider/telco.

1.Where is my circuit “homed out of”? This means where does the circuit terminate on the facility end.  You do not want this to be too far. If it is too far your reliability will suffer because you have more distance and equipment to go through.  This raises the likelihood of an equipment failure, backhoe digging something up, & utility poles falling.  The longer the distance also means the “loop charge” will most likely increase.   We will get to that in a moment.

2.There are several types of T1s for our purposes.  Some terms to familiarize oneself with are PRI, channelized, transport, and port fee.

3. Ask your provider to spell out what type of t1 this is.  If you are buying the T1 from a backbone provider such as Qwest, Level3, and others they will typically bundle everything into one package. Ask them to break this down if they don’t.  You want to know what the Local loop charge is, what the port fee is, and what the bandwidth costs.  The local loop is typically what the telephone company charges to deliver the circuit from Point A (their equipment) to Point B (you).  If you are going with a 3rd party, and not the local telephone company, the provider typically becomes the central point of contact for the entire circuit.  This can add a level of complexity when issues arise.

The port fee is a charge normally passed on for connecting to the provider’s equipment.  Say you have a 48 port switch sitting in a CO-Location facility.   For each Ethernet cable you plug in from the telephone company they charge a fee either one-time and/or monthly.  This is just the way it is typically.  One of those “Because they can” charges.  The 3rd charge is the cost of the Internet bandwidth.  A T1 can handle 1.5 Megabits of bandwidth so the cost per Megabit is not as big of an issue because you are not buying in bulk.

4.Ask to see the Service Level Agreement (SLA). If you are unfamiliar with the terms have a consultant look this over.

5.Know where your DMARC location is. This is the spot where the provider’s responsibility ends and yours begins.

6.Ask if the provider can verify with the telco how long the next circuit would take to install. You don’t want to go to order a second circuit and find out the local telephone equipment does not have enough capacity.  This has happened to our clients on many occasions.  This can be a quick process or the telco can take months and months to get around to installing the needed equipment.

References:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demarcation_point

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T-carrier