Wireless ISP Network IP Scheme

For those of you starting out in the WISP field here is a good overview of a scalable Ip scheme for your WISP network. There are some caveats to this, which we will discuss later. This does not address IPV6, I have done some articles on IPv6 in the past that addresses IPV6.

Some benefits of this scheme
1.Logically separates equipment into groups.
2.Cookie-Cutter design. Fast time to depoyment
3.Easy to train on for techs and office

This following scheme uses private IP space for infrastructure. This scheme does not address end-user addressing. More on this in a later guide.

For each tower I route a /16 out of the IP space. For example my first tower is . Your first thought is that is alot of IP space. Yes it. However, it is private IP space and you can use as much as you want. The second thought is you can only use this scheme 255 times. Yes this is true. How many WISPs are growing beyond 255 towers. Most of the wisps I know are in the 100 tower sweet spot. There are larger and smaller wisps.

So lets break this down. We are using tower 1 as an example.

Wired Infrastrudture 
1-Not used due to default being VLAN 1 on most devices. Quarantine vlan

2- Power and UPSes

3- Switches and routers

5-9 reserved for  future uses

Backhaul Management VLANS 

10-19 – Backhaul 1 – BackHaul 2

Infrastructure Radio VLANS (tagged management) 

20-29 – 2GHZ equipment – First 2.4GHZ AP – Send 2.4GHZ AP – Third 2.4 GHZ AP Management

30-39 – 3GHZ Equipment – First 3GHZ AP

40-49 – RESERVED  

50-59 -5GHZ equipment 

60-69 – 60GHZ equipment 

70-79 – RESERVED  

80-89 – 80 GHZ 

90-99 – RESERVED possible IOT 

Customer VLANS (untagged) 

120-129 – 2GHZ equipment – Customer CPE on first 2.4GHZ AP

130-139 – 3GHZ Equipment 

140-149 – RESERVED 

150-159 -5GHZ equipment 

160-169 – 60GHZ equipment 

170-179 – RESERVED 

180-189 – 80 GHZ 

Point to Point customers 


So why so much IP space? It helps keep your routing table small.

Hulu and Geolocation issues solved

Recently I received some IP space from Arin and every geolocation provider I tried came back with proper information.  However, when we went live with these IPs Hulu and others had issues with them.

When you have these issues the first place to go to is:

This link will answer many of the GeoLocaiton issues you may be experiencing.  By e-mailing ipadmin@hulu, as we suggest in the above link, I received the following back.

The IP location provider Hulu uses is Digital Envoy. Can you reach out to them and provide them with the correct geological information for that IP block. You can submit a request using the link below.https://www.digitalelement.com/contact-us/

Digital element does not happen to have an easy contact form or information on their website.  I posted a message on the NANOG mailing list asking for help. I received direct contact at Digital element, which was from a digitalenvoy.net e-mail.  I am awaiting a response back about how to handle these issues in the future.  The Digital Element web-site does not give much information on how to contact them for GeoIP issues.

If you want to read Arin’s response to GeoIp issues:

Management Networks in the xISP field and Enterprises

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Journey into Ham radio and DMR

This was originally published at http://www.mtin.net/blog/journey-into-ham-radio-and-dmr/ .A little has changed, including my call sign since it was published. However, it alot is still relevant.


For years I have hung out with “Hams” and been somewhat interested in the technology.  Guys like ka8jil, w9sn, w9smj, w9cjo, w9abh have all interested in me in ham radio. I remember many years ago, before cell signals were digital, being able to pull up to a car and watching my buddy Tom tune his radio in and listen on the cell conversation going on in the car next to us.  For educational purposes only of course.  It reminded me of the blue and Red box days of telephone phreaking.  The days of the 300 baud modems and making init strings to make the best possible connection.  For me, and I think I am like many other folks, it wasn’t the draw to the hobby, but rather all of the moving pieces of it which kept me from taking the step into it.  Traditionally Hams have tuned and tuned their radio setups, with many building their own antennas.  I can see where tuning a “shack” to get the best you can get out of it can be a challenging and rewarding thing for many.  Picking the right hardline, connectors, and other pieces takes alot of research, and some trial and error to make it function cohesively.  Tracking down noise, little hums in your transmissions, and other things is a problem solving logic that can stimulate the brain.


Motorola DMR Repeater wb9arc

But, I am not a true hardware guy.  I am more of a wizard at making it do what I want within the bounds of the software.  If I can make an add on to interface with something existing then thats as far as my interest goes.  This is what we were doing “back in the day” with blue boxes then moving on to the commodore 64. Being able to bypass copy protection, spinning up hardware keys to bypass restrictions, and stretching the limits of what the software could do with hardware add ons.  Then along came the Internet and dial-up modem banks, ISDN, T1s, etc.  All these were technology which could be pushed with “add ons” and “hacks” to something existing.  This is where my attention is really stimulated.  To me, Ham Radio has always been about taking all these different pieces and trying to make something work.  Kind of like getting a total random box of Legos and having to make a replica of the USS Ronald Regan aircraft carrier.  Sure, you can do it, but it’s going to take alot of effort.  Oh and BTW, you have to make it float when you are done. I think there is a large group like me who just wish to put something together from a kit, and then customize from there.


300 foot tower with ham antennas installed by the author

So now, fast-forward to 2015.  A technology called DMR is really taking off.  Several of my HAM friends are enlisting my help to bring these repeaters live on IP networks and putting them on towers.  After awhile it really clocks with me.  This is kind of like the days of the USR Total Control modem banks.  You have a piece of hardware that does radio to IP conversion along with a few other functions. It communicates with a server over the IP network and an antenna on a tower. DMR is a standard and has set guidelines on how it is supposed to function.  You aren’t inventing the wheel, but optimizing a setup within the bounds of what the repeater is supposed to do.  To me this is a big draw. You have a baseline of how it’s supposed to work, which takes much of the frustration away which can be a very demotivating factor in any endeavor.


Tower works on a WISP/Repeater tower

There are guys out there who are intrigued and love the RF side of stuff.  It is a science, but you can get so bogged down in it.  If you are making your own antennas you have to make sure all your wire lengths are just right, you use the correct solder, and all these 1000 other factors.  To me, that is not fun.  I admire these folks. It’s not that I want to put in the effort, I am missing the gene that experiences great joy in seeing an antenna I worked 2 months on finally go up in the air and kinda work.  I say kinda work, because I see time and time again having to adjust this or that or replacing this filter, or that connector.  To me that is frustrating. I like spending my time starting with a baseline setup and making that perform the best it can. Some say thats taking what someone else has already put together.  Heck yeah it is.  That is why I admire the tinkerer folks.  They give the folks like me a solid product i can go out and put to use because I didn’t spend those two months doing that piece of it.


Tytera DMR radio

I know many folks are seeing DMR as the hot and sexy new technology.  I am looking at it as something that is able to be duplicated over and over with minor tweaks.  This keeps things interesting, without having to start from scratch each time.  Instead of focusing on soldering, and programming PLC boards, you can now focus on site installation, and tuning new and existing installations.   On the radio side you have the draw of programming radios to work with repeaters, and talk groups, and the like.  Repeaters have their own software to learn.  Again, you aren’t re-inventing the wheel, rather learning a system.  Within this system you can find ways to do things better, push the boundaries, and be involved in finding bugs and software suggestions.


Installing antennas for w9smj repeaters

Many other HAMS tell me since I am a network guy I should love packet radio and technologies similar to that.  Not really, I have that in the interconnected networks called the Internet.  More and more effort is being focused on making connections hardened and resilient that packet radio is more nostalgia to me than anything.  We were doing such things with 300 baud modems in 1987.  Maybe, at one point I will dip my toe into such things.  But, it will have to be in a way that is an add on to existing systems, not starting from scratch.  I would have to have a “packet radio kit” that I assemble and hook into something. the CBRIDGE software that DMR uses really started my wheels turning.  It was not radio related, but it was a piece that I could wrap my head around.  For those of you who don’t know, CBRIDGE is what allows the DMR repeaters to talk over the IP network.  So by learning that piece, it motivated me to learn about DMR in general.  One day my mind said “hey you can use this and not be frustrated because sunspots knock it out for a week at a time.”


w9smj antenna on a water tower install

So, my advice for anyone looking at HAM radio who is not a tinkering type of person take a look at some of the other aspects of the hobby.  Things like DMR are “easy” to get into in relative terms.  You aren’t going out and buying a base unit, amplifiers, hardline, and spending hours tuning it all.  After you pass your test you can be up and running very quickly without soldering a single connection.  As technology evolves and is incorporated into the hobby, it opens up a new way to get folks like myself interested.


Baicells Public IPs on client routers

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