Podcast: Equinix, T-Mobile, IRS

Equinix publishes their global interconnection Index report.

T-Mobile expands residential LTE broadband
interesting to note there are “no data caps” however, During congestion, Home Internet customers may notice speeds lower than other customers due to data prioritization. 

Geek out on 100 GIG AWS networking

IRS under investigation

IRS Under Investigation For Illegally Tracking Americans via Their Phones

Today’s links

This podcast sponsored by Fiber Data Internet exchange (fd-ix.com)

https://www.eff.org/ Privacy news for all things digital and beyond

https://slashdot.org/ All things geeky


As the days get shorter

As summer comes to a close here in Indiana and the daylight fades to dusk around 5PM I find myself with more time to devote back to the writings on this blog, the Youtube videos, Podcasts and editing of the videos I already have done.

Look for more content coming soon.

Mikrotik RouterOS and CPU usage

There always is a lot of talk about Mikrotik RouterOS CPU usage. I wanted to take a few minutes and go over a real-world example and explain some of the ins and outs when discussing Mikrotik CPU usage.

Let’s talk about the router in question. This is a CCR1016-12s-1S+. This is a 16 core 1.2GHz per core and 2GB RAM tilex based router. It is currently pulling in 1,764,849 IPv4 routes. There are two transit provider BGP feeds, multiple direct peers, an Internet Exchange peer to dual-route servers. The router handles a little over 3 gigs of routed traffic at peak times. Most of the traffic is on VLANs coming from a Cisco switch to the SFPPlus port.

One of the first things people turn on is the overall CPU usage within winbox. I like to think of this as an overall view of the CPUs on this router. Keep in mind there are 16.

Th next thing to investigate when it comes to CPU is to open up System..resources. Once there clock on CPU.

Mikrotik System..resources

It will then bring up a screen that looks like the following.

Oh My we have 100% CPU! Must replace this router ASAP! Calm down, remember you have 16 cores. So, why is this CPU at 100% and what ramifications does this have?

Remember earlier when we talked about BGP? In Mikrotik, BGP is not a multi-core aware process. This means BGP is limited to just one core to do it’s work. Since there are always routes being withdrawn and re-added to the routing table it is a busy process. Lots of math calculations going on. The key thing is this is expected behavior on a router running multiple BGP peers such as this one. This is not a bad thing, but not ideal. Throwing more cores at BGP is not the answer. Optimizing the process, as it has been done in V7 is the way to go.

If we expand the CPU window we will notice other processes are multi-core aware and.or are spreading their load among different cores.

As you can see we are in pretty good shape. We have a few CPUs above 50% utilization but, only a few. I will keep reminding you of the fact we have 16 of them.

Closing notes:
Diagnosing CPU issues can get a little complicated because routers like the 3011 have some have the majority of their ports shared with a single CPU bus.  https://wiki.mikrotik.com/images/f/f3/Switch_chip_block_diagram.png. As you can tell in the diagram there are 5 ports which share 1 Gig to the CPU.  The fact that an actual switch chip with hardware offloading is in the middle helps, but the bus is still oversold.  This is one reason consolidating routers to an actual switch will make a difference.  

Janis Megis from Mikrotik had presentation at MUM, which is a little older now, still sheds a lot of light on how Mikrotik CPU works.  https://mum.mikrotik.com/presentations/US10/Megis.pdf There is some pretty interesting stuff starting on page 14

With Mikrotik switching to ARM processors we will see huge differences with them and RotuerOS7. We will see less cores, but better utilization of those cores. The new 2004 with all SFP and 2 25 gig ports only has 4 CPU.

So the next time you look at a router, take a few moments to see how utilized the entire CPU architecture is instead of just one CPU.

#packetsdownrange #mikrotik

Opinions on Versitron SG162147M switch?

Has anyone used one of these switches?

Their sales staff has been very helpful. I have not come across a switch manufacturer that has had no software updates to their product. I asked about firmware and software updates and they do not have any.

The switch itself looks very intriguing for the WISP market. It’s a small form-factor SFP and SFP+ switch. It appears ports 1-14 are 2 1 gig, and 15-16 are SFP+.

Feedback from anyone who has deployed one. I asked for a reduced price demo and they don’t have one.

#switch #versitron #SG162147M

Apple adds Back Tap

Back Tap turns the entire back of your iPhone into a giant touch-sensitive button that you can double or triple tap to trigger specific functions on your phone. There’s a good chance that you haven’t noticed it yet. Apple slipped the settings for Back Tap into its Accessibility menu.


Mounting old file system CDs on MacOS Catalina

Recently I had an issue with mounting older CD-Roms of backup files and such on MacOSX Catalina. Apparently, Apple dropped support for HFS volumes. In order to fix this it is pretty easy.

You will need HomeBrew. Being a network geek I already have this installed. If you need to install this here is a link..

With HomeBrew installed run the following command from terminal

brew install hfsutils

After a minute or so it will complete. Insert your cd/dvd and open up disk utility.You will see your cd/dvd greyed out because it is not mounted.

Click on the info in the upper right. You are looking for the device node. In my case it is disk2s1s2.

Once you have this info go back to terminal and run the following command

sudo hmount /dev/disk2s1s2

If you have the proper path you will get something similar to this

Volume name is “Photos/Sounds/Etc” (locked)
Volume was created on Thu Sep 16 15:34:21 1999
Volume was last modified on Fri Feb 16 10:58:16 2001
Volume has 0 bytes free

To do a listing of the volume:

sudo hls

From this point I simply create a directory on my desktop and copy each directory to it. I have found the best way is to copy each directory independently. I do this with the following command

sudo hcopy -r ":Directory_to_be_Copied:*.*" /Volumes/MacintoshHD/Users/YOU/Desktop/CD/

The trailing slash is important.

Mikrotik Releases 6.47.6

What’s new in 6.47.6 (2020-Oct-21 10:41):

*) cap – fixed L2MTU path discovery;
*) crs3xx – fixed hardware offloaded LACP bonding on Ethernet interfaces for CRS354 devices;
*) crs3xx – fixed switch rules for CRS309 and CRS317 devices (introduced in v6.47.3);
*) defconf – fixed default configuration loading on RBmAP-2nD;
*) dhcpv4-client – fixed DHCP offer packet parsing with overload option present;
*) dhcpv6-server – properly save bindings when executing “make-static” command;
*) fetch – improved SSL handshake processing;
*) ike1 – allow using “my-id” parameter with XAuth;
*) leds – fixed LED type setting;
*) lora – expose “joinEui” un “devEui” values in the log;
*) lte – fixed multiple APN passthrough on R11e-4G;
*) lte – improved EARFCN reporting in 3G and LTE modes on Sierra modems;
*) lte – limit allowed APN count to 3 on R11e-LTE;
*) mpls – fixed duplicate “LabelRelease” message sending;
*) ospf – optimized LSA printing for smaller message sizes;
*) radius – added “Service-Type” attribute to Access-Request for IPv4 and IPv6 DHCP servers;
*) smips – reduced RouterOS main package size;
*) switch – fixed Ethernet padding for small packets;
*) user – improved WinBox and The Dude authenticated session handling;
*) vrrp – made “password” parameter sensitive;
*) w60g – general stability and performance improvements;
*) wireless – added support for US FCC UNII-2 and Canada country profiles for NetMetal series devices;
*) wireless – fixed incorrect wireless capability information in association response frames;

Preseem now supports IPv6




Preseem now supports IPv6 for all use cases. This includes the ability to assign subscribers a prefix of arbitrary length.

IPv4 with Prefixes of Arbitrary Length

Previously Preseem modelled subnet assignments to customers as a number of /32 assignments. For example a subscriber who was assigned a /30 would result in four internal /32 mappings. Preseem now supports assigning any prefix length to a subscriber without expanding these into /32 entries internally.